Ansible comes with a vault feature. It is meant to be used in the context of configuration management. But you can also use it as a standalone simple password vault for your personal or organization's use.
Initial setup of password vault:
ansible-vault create myvault.secret
git add myvault.secret git commit -m "My vault"
At this point, your password vault is setup and pushed to your central Git repository. The next time you want to use it on another or same device, here's the flow you could use:
ansible-vault view myvault.secret
ansible-vault edit myvault.secret
git add myvault.secret git commit -m "Save again"
Keep in mind that Git will treat your password vault as a binary file.